Let us rejoice our fathers’ refuge

Blog: Let us rejoice our fathers’ refuge



By Evan Papamichael

Manuscript Master Evan




 The Massachusetts Historical Society (in collaboration with – J STOR)

 Pilgrims and Puritans: “Heroes” and “Villains” in the Creation of the American Past.

Author(s): Peter J. Gomes

Source: Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Third Series, Vol. 95 (1983), pp. 1-16

Published by: Massachusetts Historical Society

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25080920

Accessed: Thursday, 07-07-2016 04:03 UTC


What inspired our Pilgrim Fathers, to emigrate to the USA? What did they expect to find; and, what was the reality of their circumstances? They discovered a safe haven, far away from England; where many of them faced – religious intolerance. The new land on the other side of the Atlantic promised them: hope, dignity, comfort; and, a sense of belonging and self-worthiness.

Peter J. Gomes (1983:2-3) points out that:

…“Daniel Webster in his 1820 address to the 200th anniversary celebration of the Pilgrim landing on 22 December 1820”…

[Outlined how]

…”the Pilgrims had been rediscovered, never to be lost again”…

The Pilgrim Fathers found: a bright, new; and, refreshing – form of self-identity. They took pride, in this: momentous discovery. They were all: well-equipped to overcome; any pitfalls that lay ahead of them; and, were at a transition stage; from religious devastation in England; to a new beginning – in the Promised Land (New England) –  which meant that they were blessed with: good fortune, wealth, peace and harmony; from an: economic, spiritual, political and moral perspective.

Daniel Webster (Ibid) further states: …“Forever honored be this place”… This indicates the brilliance, prominence and worthiness of Plymouth emigration as it was… “the place of our fathers’ refuge”… They took comfort in their new personal territory.

Daniel Webster (Ibid) points out how: …”the chief difference between the Pilgrim emigration to Plymouth and all others in antiquity was quality of purpose”…

This was not only, the chief difference; but, a substantial difference. It was nothing like -antiquated emigration – in the past. New England settlers were well focused, in their dreams and endeavors. By “quality of purpose” we refer to; quality of life; and, an optimistic forthcoming – of arriving; and, something that was, one of a kind.

What made this group: exclusive, unique, successful and honorable? How did they achieve such brilliance, in society? Daniel Webster (Ibid) points out that: …”They went to erect systems of more perfect civil liberty, or to enjoy a higher degree of religious freedom”…

By “civil liberty” one understands that; they wanted to be: civilized; and, to be treated as such – by all members, in society. This is what made it: “more perfect” indicating that, their fellow man, the government, judiciary and clergy; treated them with; self-respect and dignity.

Daniel Webster (Ibid) states that: The Pilgrims…”came hither to a land from which they were never to return”… [and] …”were acting upon a resolution not to be changed”…

“They were never to return” because their goal of finding “a higher degree of religious freedom” was welcomed and made possible while arriving in New England; and, they chose, to stay there permanently; because, this would bring them – infinite and lifelong: wellbeing.



Paradox of the Pilgrims

Blog: Paradox of the Pilgrims


By Evan Papamichael

Manuscript Master Evan




The Massachusetts Historical Society (in collaboration with – J STOR)

Pilgrims and Puritans: “Heroes” and “Villains” in the Creation of the American Past.

Author(s): Peter J. Gomes

Source: Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Third Series, Vol. 95 (1983), pp. 1-16

Published by: Massachusetts Historical Society

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25080920

Accessed: Thursday, 07-07-2016 04:03 UTC


For a long duration, the major focus of discussion: was on one group – the Pilgrims. But in what way, if any; did this issue, take place? Who instigated it; and, how was it proven: to be a truly dominant, character or belief, in American society? In which century – did this mentality by Americans – take control, over Historical Scholarship?

One group which contributed, to this academic strongpoint: was the mythmakers. But what sort of myths, are we talking about? Ancient Greek or Roman? Are we juxtaposing historians in the USA; and, elsewhere, with these old schools of thought? We are in fact, referring to: local mythmakers, in the USA.

This was evident in: the writings, poetry, verse, opinion, intellectual thought and rhetorical voice of, authors and poets. What other creative masterpieces; were produced to highlight and exemplify; the drive towards – a Pilgrim bias, as a heroic and dignified protagonist – in early USA history?

Peter J. Gomes (1-2:1983) states: The Pilgrims [maintained a stronghold for] 300 years [in Massachusetts Bay.] It was sustained for so long…”because of the mythmakers and the appeal of folklore in the last century. [ie: 1836-1936]

Paintings, portraits and other visual art – were relevant here. Just how a book can tell a story of a 1000 words: and will enlighten all, if not many of, its loyal and patriotic readers; so too a painting can portray, this. Meaning, a story which is believable and convincing; and, will have a significant impact on the: thoughts, views, beliefs and trust, of members of society; especially locals, in the homeland USA.

What do we mean by, heroes? In what way were Pilgrims, the champions and super heroes? Who did the Pilgrims defeat; and, was it only the Puritans, or all of society? Why was this – the common belief, for so many years? Is it fair to label the Puritans, as villains? What did they do wrong; or how did they become – portrayed as inadequate and insignificant – in USA society?

Samuel Eliot Morison (1-2: 1983) argues: …”the “defeated” have become the “conquerors” and the “victors” become the “vanquished”… In other words …“the Pilgrims have become “heroes” and the Puritans become “villains”…

Why was there rivalry, between Puritans and Pilgrims? What brought this about? Was it carefully and tactfully: discussed, analyzed, judged and interpreted, properly and fairly? Why was it labelled, the Pilgrim Century, from 1820-1920?

Peter J. Gomes (2:1983) points out that …”The development of this rivalry as a staple of New England historiography is a product of the so-called Pilgrim Century from 1820 to 1920”…


…”Americans responded to their past at the level of feeling and identification: they voted their historical preferences with their hearts”…

There was a great deal of – patriotism and self-pride – by the Americans. They had a feeling of: self-identity and significance, in themselves. They “voted” with their “hearts” which indicates, how: emotional, personal, touching and sympathetic they were; towards their belief that, the Pilgrims were; the benefactors of early American historical significance; and, emergence as – a major force in: identity, culture, humanity and dignity.

Peter J. Gomes (2:1983) highlights this point, where he states: …”the people conferred that identity and the purveyors of popular culture – poets, painters, and authors – expressed it, the rivalry has little to do with conventional cultural success or failure”…

The Dandenongs: Melbourne’s Blue Mountains

Panoramic views, breath-taking sights, fresh mountain air, beautiful and unique flora and  fauna: are all found, in Melbourne’s Dandenong Ranges (Blue Mountains National Park), in Australia. You will come across endless forests,with trees up to 50 metres high; and, Fern Trees, as well as, Eucalyptus (Gum) Trees, everywhere.

You must try to spot the, Australian Liar Bird. It looks like a peacock; but, does not have the same –  blue, aqua and purple colours. It is dark brown and grey; but, with similar feathers, as a peacock. It can sing, scream out and talk; while imitating the sound of other Australian wildlife; but,in this sense it is like a feathered chameleon. That is where it gets its name: Liar Bird.

As you drive up the mountain you will face an ascent; of ninety degrees and you will be lost in a sea: of brown tree trunks, green leaves; and, bush land at its best. Even while the car windows are closed –  you can breathe in the fresh air and master – the magnificence of Mother Nature.

Be careful not to run over any: native Australian Animals, as this is part of their natural habitat. They hibernate during winter; but, as the weather warms up, and the days grow longer  – and we see more sunshine –  these four legged friends of ours,go searching for: food, a mate and adventure.  They sometimes cross the road: so be careful as you drive.

There are lots of popular tourist destinations, to visit. My favourite is, the village called: Sassafras. There you will find – tea houses, coffee and cake shops,bric-a-brac, antiques, clothing and nursery stores; as well as, the world-famous, Miss Marples’ Tea Rooms. Made famous by the TV series –  and books written by Agatha Christie, about the, elderly lady fictional Detective. I enjoy, Sassafras Café which serves:traditional Baracoa Coffee,English Tea and cakes, unique to Australia. It is a snack shop situated in, a cottage like setting; in the heart of the shopping precinct. Geppetto’s is, a fun toy shop which the children, will love; and, R. M. Williams sells, traditional: Country, Outback Australian Clothes, Coats, Hats and Footwear.

Many families choose to visit these areas for a day trip or –  to relax, have a bar be que; and, just to, forget the stress and running around; brought  about by, a hectic, business life – in the nearby city, of Melbourne.

Come down and visit this place. You will love, it. It is a great fun day out. Enjoy the best of rural life; and, you will always want to return –  to treat yourself, to the spleandour, that nature has to offer!

Pilgrims and Puritans

Blog: Pilgrims and Puritans


By Evan Papamichael

Manuscript Master Evan




 The Massachusetts Historical Society (in collaboration with –  J STOR)

 Pilgrims and Puritans: “Heroes” and “Villains” in the Creation of the American Past.

Author(s): Peter J. Gomes

Source: Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Third Series, Vol. 95 (1983), pp. 1-16

Published by: Massachusetts Historical Society

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25080920

Accessed: Thursday, 07-07-2016 04:03 UTC


A positive approach was taken by the Plymouth Colony settlers to sacrifice their autonomy. This would benefit most if not all in the long term. Such a cause was perceived as a valid anticipation as it would be advantageous to: their Church, Government and Schooling System.

The first major transformation in the new colony was as follows:

Gomes (1983:1) points out that: …” after a fitful legal existence of some 70 years, the Plymouth Colony first and oldest New England settlement, ceased to exist. Its last governor, Thomas Hinckley, welcomed the end of independence and took comfort that the stronger Bay Colony would now support the faltering cause of religion and education in Plymouth”…

A notable outcome was: that a heritage listed colonization body, evaporated into thin air. It took on, a transformation – which would reshape and rewrite – the USA history books.

The end result was; an eradication of historic settlement. It was met with a warm reception: by the former Governor.

The legal process in changing the political landscape developed further.

The benefits of such political movements – were widespread in Plymouth. This included, the settlers’ faith and schooling system.

The Plymouth Church is personified as being holy, pure, miraculous, dignified and superior. In this sense, it was watched over and protected; and, in return  – a day of Thanksgiving was announced – to reflect that; this Holy Denomination, was guided and blessed: by the Heavenly Saints.

The Plymouth Colony’s Church was concentrated in this manner; its people were entrenched in a strong hold; of saint-like “Thanksgiving” which encompassed  the Government; and, dated back to the Mayflower.

Gomes (1983:1) states: “In April 1693, the Plymouth Church, founded by John Robinson and rooted in Scrooby, Leyden, and the Mayflower, declared a day of Thanksgiving that government was still in the hands of the saints.”

This hagiographical description indicates that the Plymouth colonists were: confident, capable, knowledgeable, pious, dignified, honourable; and, accustomed to the pure and honest –  teachings of the Holy Bible and were obedient and punctual –  towards the Christian faith.

However, these people’s belief in religion and education were: hesitant and uncertain. People were nervous because they did not know what to do. They lost confidence in what they were practicing. The situation became weaker or slower, in an uneven way.

Gomes (1983:1) highlights that:

…”By legislative action in London and inaction in Plymouth, the Old Colony returned to the obscurity from which it had emerged on the Mayflower’s tide in 1620; historians would assign to it a moral but minor role in the larger drama of Puritanism to which the Pilgrims were character players but not stars”…

An important juxtaposition is made above, on the conflict of interest between the Puritans and Pilgrims.


The Plymouth Colony faced a, dilemma. This was due to, inconsistencies adopted towards the colonists; by, the English Parliament in the Mother Country; and, a lack of proper cooperation; and, effective political muscle – to run strong and effective rule  – in the new land. Hence, a dire situation was forthcoming: which led to the similar; inadequacies faced at the time; as when the Mayflower, initially arrived in New England in, 1620.

This phenomenon fuelled: the upcoming controversial debate about; whether the Puritans or Pilgrims were to blame; for this challenging and distracting situation; which the colony would face –  for, many years to come.

Which political and religious milestones were achieved in, Plymouth? Who were the groups responsible, for these results? Was it the Puritans or Pilgrims:  who were the beneficiaries of these, advantageous and successful outcomes? To what extent can the Puritans or Pilgrims – be proven to be the winners or losers in this game of dominance – in Church and State; in, the New England Colony of Plymouth?

My next blog will argue: in an articulate way – how these issues were assessed – by Historians; and, judged on their, merits and significance.


History of the USA

Manuscript Master Evan –  is going to major in: three themes in  History of the USA.

One) The Era of Revolution.

Foundation of Colonial Societies, Origins of Slavery, Causes of American Revolution. Subsequent debate over: the nature of the new government; which, culminated in the adoption –  of the American Constitution, in 1787.


Two) Division and Reunion

American Civil War. Reasons why it occurred and problems which it left. The Institution of Slavery and the theme of Immigration.


Three) The Industrial State

Responses of Americans to problems of twentieth-century America.

A) Economic collapse and social dislocation between 1929-1939.

B) Racial Inequality and the drive to end it; with, an emphasis on the period after 1954;

namely, The Civil Rights Movement.

Sizzling Summer Fun!

Summer is approaching, and now is a great time to plan a: long deserved, relaxing, entertaining and  exciting holiday. Most popular, are resorts or caravan parks, near the beach.  If you want it simple; you can hire a trailer from the city; hook it up to the back of your car; and, zoom down the Peninsula Freeway until you, hit the coast. This is an, excellent  tradition, for the whole family. Or you might prefer the Surf Coast where you can participate in surfing or scuba diving. How about observing sea creatures under water; viewing the dolphins and whales; or perhaps; going to an observatory to watch penguins and seals on parade – in their natural habitat.

One should always remember –  to participate in the spectacular experience – of a bar be  que. Sausages, steaks, chops, hamburgers and cheese; as well as, salads, fruit and lots of: soft drink and alcohol, (drunk in moderation), make the experience complete and fulfilling.

Soak up the sun, (but do not get sun burnt), enjoy swimming or fishing; and, go for a casual stroll, around national parks; and, see how wonderful it is: to appreciate, natural flora and fauna.



Literary and History Scholars

The magnificence and expertise:of our former History and Literary Scholars; cannot be underestimated. They engaged with their audience: authentically, emotionally, intelligently, comprehensively and grasped our thoughts and attention throughout the entirety of their manuscript.

Shakespeare profoundly and methodically entertained, us. The Bronte sisters took our imagination to the limit. Jane Austen glamourised class society. Charles Dickens incorporated the beneficiaries of nineteenth-century England, with the misfortunes of the less fortunate in society.

History tells us that the two major wars in pre-twentieth century USA, were bloody, heart breaking, disasterous ;and, they reshaped what was to become a powerful world dominating world figure; on the national and international stage; whether: political, economic, financial, strategic, military or cultural. Namely, the USA was then, and until now; the biggest imperial power in world history.

Australia can boast about its, bush history; in outback rural society. Henry Lawson and Banjo Patterson predominantly link; the city with the country and produce –  history, poetry and literature –  which is unique to, Australia’s rich heritage.

John W. Blassingame,  a Harvard Professor perfectly and consistently portrays: Slavery in Antebellum Pre-Civil War USA, tactfully and meticulously in his book – The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. Carl Degler’s book, Out of Our Past: The Forces that Shaped Modern America – also, shows a society of people who shaped the birth of modern day USA; with detailed analysis, from the Pilgrim Fathers arriving in Boston, to the War of Independence;the Civil War and the amazing ,years that followed.

Writer Evan Beginning

My name is Evan Papamichael; and, I love writing my Autobiography.

I am also passionate about: Copywriting and Copyediting. I have devoted my life to these Genres. The beauty of my word craft; is that it is –  unique, entertaining, original and comprehensive.

From as far back as, I can remember; I was a dedicated book worm. I have  – transformed this  passion – into a hobby at first; and, now  a career.

I have lived in Melbourne, Australia all my life; and, have many personal experiences to talk about.

I hold a B.Litt. (Bachelor of Letters) in English Literature from Monash University and a Diploma (Professional Writing and Editing) from Holmesglen TAFE which is a Technical College.

My favourite subjects (after telling my life story) are: Copywriting and Copyediting.

The former involves Corporate Writing or Specialist Business Writing and the latter is about using world wide accredited Copyediting Marks to edit and correct punctuation and grammar in a Manuscript. You are welcome to join me; on my exciting journey!